Thursday, February 05, 2009

Austerity Nostalgia

(The paragraphs below are taken from a guest lecture I gave to postgraduates at Chelsea College of Art - it goes from this rather rancorous introduction to a defence of the notion that nostalgia for the future can become a political position - something mostly done through cut & pasting of stuff that regular readers will already know. Nonetheless, this stands on its own, I think. Although I should probably also confess to owning a People Will Always Need Plates mug, of Park Royal station...)



You are probably familiar with the poster above. From seemingly nowhere, this image - which combines starkly Modernist typography with the reassuring imagery of the Crown and a similarly reassuring message - has spread everywhere. On Monday, walking around in an inch of snow, I saw one of them posted in the window of a 1960s house in Blackheath. Of course the implied message about hardiness in the face of adversity and the Blitz spirit seemed rather absurd in a context where a bit of snow caused the shutdown of London's entire transport network, but nonetheless - this poster seems to exemplify a design phenomenon which has slowly crept up on us in the last few years to the point where it's now unavoidable. We could call it austerity nostalgia. More particularly, a nostalgia for the kind of public modernism which characterised much of the 1930s, 40s, 50s and 60s and early 70s, and which is being gradually rediscovered. That is, the responses on the part of designers and architects to, first, the great depression, and then the reconstruction of Britain on a more egalitarian basis, after the destruction of many British cities in the Blitz.



Unlike traditional forms of nostalgia, this is not at all based on lived experience. Most of those who have bought this poster, or worn the various bags, T-shirts and other bits of tat based upon it, were probably born in the 70s or 80s, and have no memory whatsoever of the kind of benevolent modernism it seems to exemplify. This is an example of the phenomenon defined by Douglas Coupland in the early 1990s as Legislated Nostalgia, that is 'to force a body of people to have memories they do not actually possess.' The poster itself was never actually mass-produced, so even those who can remember the 1940s would be unlikely to remember it. It was designed for the Ministry of Information during the Blitz of 1940. The official website, which sells a variety of Keep Calm and Carry On tat, mentions that it never became an official propaganda poster, so only a handful must have been produced. One of those few was found in amongst a consignment of second hand books bought at auction, then reproduced by a provincial bookshop, gradually becoming a sort of middlebrow, semi-ironic staple when the recession, euphemistically the 'credit crunch', hit. Through this poster, the way to display one's commitment to the new austerity was to buy pointless branded stuff, the excess of which had helped cause the crisis in the first place. We could adapt it into 'keep calm and carry on shopping', as commanded by George W Bush both after 9/11 and when the sub-prime crisis hit America.



The legislated nostalgia of the Keep Calm and Carry On poster is only the tip of a veritable iceberg of Modernist nostalgia, spreading gradually through the ranks of the chattering classes. Take Jamie Oliver's Ministry of Food, with its 1940s typeface and its name echoing the wartime Ministry of Information, appealing to a time when things like food or information were apparently dispensed by a benign paternalist bureaucracy, before consumer choice carried all before it – although here the nostalgia is particularly dubious, in that the existence of such a Ministry of Food is all-but politically inconceivable, given how it would antagonise such planks of British capital as the supermarkets and the tabloids. Even then, the Ministry of Food appeals to the element in the middle classes that has always enjoyed lecturing the lower orders on their poor choice of nutrition. You could also include the use of the 1930s Penguin book covers as an 'iconic' logo for all manner of memorabilia, all calling to mind Penguin's former role as an educative publisher; or the considerably more interesting modifications of their designs - via the garbled nature of (un)real memory - into something more eerie and psychedelic, as practised by the Ghost Box record label. Another instance of it is the ceramics company 'People Will Always Need Plates', who have made a name for themselves making towels, mugs, plates and badges emblazoned with various British Modernist buildings from the 1930s to the 1960s, elegantly redrawn in stark, schematic form, rather than the often rather shabby reality of the buildings themselves. Cute as they undeniably are, they manage to almost precisely reverse the original Modernist ethos. There, ornament was crime, here Modernist buildings are made into ornaments. However, when you look at the buildings chosen, there is something politically interesting about them. Houses for Hampstead intellectuals, blocks of 1930s collective housing, 1960s council flats, inter-war London Underground stations. These are not the buildings that have characterised the last 30 years.



A relatively early example of this nostalgia for the watchful eye of benevolent institutions was provided by Transport for London, the somewhat beleaguered publicly-owned transport network created by Ken Livingstone as Mayor of London in 2000, which began by trying to stop privatisation, and ended by winning a pyrrhic victory, renationalising the tube but creating new privatisations on the East London line. These posters appeared on bus shelters in 2002, and have as you can see certain similarities in typography with 1930s posters for London Transport by the Bauhaus designer Lazslo Moholy-Nagy. They quite deliberately play with the 'totalitarian', Orwellian associations of 1930s and '40s design, almost courting accusations of 'big brother' tactics, with their eyes watching over London's bus commuters. This is a rather queasy joke. Britain has some of the heaviest surveillance in the world, and London more CCTV cameras than any other city, so to treat this as something benign is deeply dubious. It advertises the allegedly caring role of the Metropolitan Police in their surveillance of the bus or tube passenger, something which can only leave a foul taste in the mouth after the public execution of Jean-Charles de Menezes, so unsurprisingly it hasn't returned in the last five years or so. The great irony of all this is that the supposedly paternalistic public institutions of the 1940s were either unable and, for that matter, unwilling to set up the apparatus of surveillance that every Londoner now regards as normal. What Orwell hadn't realised was that the surveillance society would be accompanied by nostalgic jokes, not shrill exhortations.

100 Comments:

Blogger Adam Rothstein said...

Great speech. I've been playing with terms, attempting to describe the hip (often, hipster) appropriation of nostalgia we see in the States, but you seem to hit on it directly. The relationship to the willful (or perhaps not) forgetfulness of the associated bureaucracy, and other Stateist elements of modernism is especially apt--its a pretty distrubing wholesale rejection of the history associated with the objects.

The "commodification" in particular has always struck me. A lot of the design process associated with such objects used the appropriation in lieu of invention on its own. The poster found in a bookshop, for instance, I can just imagine designers and other creatives nodding their heads and saying, "yeah, killer find, man." Like we're all DJs trying to whip out that next big underground white-label hit you've never heard of.

Not to say recycling is bad, but it certainly is ahistorical, as you seem to be saying. But in addition, it also seems to be replacing new things. I find myself at odds between a desire for immediacy which rejects the need for long, dry histories, and my academic impulses wishing these kids would "read an f'ing book once in a while." Is there a better position? I wish history was more punk. But that's just me.



ps. And ironic or not (or to what degree), do you know of a place to get a reproduction of the "Watchful Eyes" poster? Or of a version from which a high-quality scan could be made? I would like to save one for posterity... those sorts of artifacts will be historic gold when the hysteria of the '00s are forgotten. Also I have a history teacher acquaintance who collects propaganda posters, and I'd like to get him a gift.


Cheers
Adam

12:36 am  
Blogger The Sesquipedalist said...

Bang on - I've been thinking pretty much the same thing (at least up to the last para) - but could never have written it so eruditely or concisely. Nicely done, sir.

10:29 am  
Anonymous Juvenile Dwarf said...

Keep Calm and Carry On posters: saw my first one of these in the press office (I think it was) at the Treasury. Couldn't initially quite tell, given the setting, if it was a) an official pronouncement of some sort or b) hillarious press officer irony hijinks. Disappointed to discover it was (b).

See also, by-the-by, the excellent climate campaign slogan, "The future's not what it used to be." Sums current situation up nicely.

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12:39 pm  
Blogger Kosmograd said...

Coincidentally, there was an article about the Keep Calm and Carry On poster on the BBC site a couple of days ago.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7869458.stm

The 'hipster' revisioning of this poster is Olly Moss' 'Now Panic and Freak Out' poster/t-shirt.

http://www.ollymoss.com/
http://www.threadless.com/print/1626/Now_panic_and_freak_out_Print

I'm not sure where I stand on all this austerity nostalgia, but the Ghost Box stuff takes me right back to the 70's, sitting cross-legged in the school hall where the teacher would wheel in the TV and clunk a video into the VHS player.

1:31 pm  
Blogger Charles Holland said...

Owen,

Excellent stuff, but I think the Ghost Box stuff obeys the usual rules of nostalgia (eerie half remembered stuff from childhood, and school text book graphics)that you quite rightly point out doesn't apply in the war/post war nostalgia. The longing for some reassuringly benevolent but more dictatorial government, leading us through austere times, has a (perhaps far too easy) meaning as we realise the extent that our economy and financial structures are out of the actual governments hands.

Very acute post though...

2:13 pm  
Blogger owen hatherley said...

Yeah I think Ghost Box do something based on actual memory gone garbled and weird, not legislated memory - but I put them in there because they do deal with the same period.

Nb I tend to think the 'out of the government's hands' thing is true in terms of public perception, but also a convenient excuse. There's a reason why Britain, Iceland, Ireland, etc are more fucked than France, Sweden, Germany, and that's the extent to which our government wilfully bought into the most extreme neoliberalism of its own volition.

4:23 pm  
Anonymous Rob said...

In the last few years? Really? What about Billy Bragg with his Penguin Books-pastiche record sleeves, or Morrissey's NHS glasses?

I like to think that the Secure Below the Watchful Eyes poster was sabotage by the design agency and that they couldn't believe the client actually approved it.

1:17 pm  
Blogger owen hatherley said...

Oh, you certainly could - as the very good Frieze piece claims - date it right back to the early '80s, but I think it's become completely unavoidable in the last few years, partly by getting conflated with the early 80s.

Mind you, I really like the idea of it being design agency sabotage. There was a definite 'you're having a laugh element the first time they were up...

1:52 pm  
Blogger nxlb said...

Perhaps I have misunderstood the point (I am a new regularish..er, im a first time caller), but I feel that it is not quiet right to link your Austerity Nostalgia to modernism.

I can accept that adopting today the appearance of government messages from an era that suffered the daily threat of bombings is a highly inappropriate way to promote positions of moral authority or status quo when alternatives are clearly needed. But I find it very difficult to understand this as nostalgia for things Modernist. Sure, these images you show that are nostalgic for the 1940s have a kind of modernist structure. They deliver some kind of feeling or surface message very directly (A to B.), without the devices and arrangements of Premodernist art (A via B and C and D etc to Z.). These images are modernist in aesthetic perhaps, but what about the social or political. Austerity Nostalgia seems more about some kind of Englishness and things that predate the modernism you refer to. These images do not (and in the originals intentionally) pose any questions to the world as they find it. Obviously we cannot say sans serif = modernism, or any number of things like this, so I wonder to what extent the appropriation of modernist aesthetics to support political ideas that are not about social change etc can still be called the modernism. So I suppose in the end I agree with you and am very dubious about this particular take on war time nostalgia. To repeat myself, I am very uncomfortable with the idea that diverse and conflicting visual systems can be grouped in a single word (I really dont want this to be in anyway understood as similar to Jencks, it doesn't interest me to be only interested in the skill of rhetoric. Maybe vaguely I feel my point is more connected to Raphael). To be more related to your point, perhaps I am more optimistic about the general reasons for the relatively extreme cultural cannibalism we practice today and in the last 12 to 15 years or so. We are told that any modern revolution must only derive its poetry from the future, but maybe today it is slightly different. But maybe this is a different topic. Great post, provoking.

9:10 pm  
Anonymous Dan Fox said...

I know what you mean, nxlb, about not confusing the surface aesthetic of Modernism with its ideals. That's the old thing art historians were traditionally taught to avoid: not assuming two works of art 'mean' the same thing just because they share formal or pictorial characteristics.

However, I think modernist nostalgia - a broader form of nostalgia to the specifically 1940s austerity version Owen writes about - as found in, say, much recent contemporary art, is very much about nostalgia for its social Utopian ambitions. Over the past couple of years I've seen as many refried Constructivist and Bauhaus-manque projects that valorize the cross-disciplinary work of early 20th c. art and design as I have those that just appropriate the aesthetics of the era (because, as one student infamously remarked to a friend of mine, 'they just like the look of it', which is the rather more worrying side to optimism for cultural cannibalism of the past - the past as a set of surfaces to just skate across...)

ps. Thanks for the link to the Frieze blog Owen.

12:37 pm  
Blogger nxlb said...

Quite a comment from you friends student! And You're right to mention old art historians! Am I allowed to say that I'm interested in Max Raphael (Demands of Art etc), and even those 50 years before him who viewed art as some kind of biological function? It is pretty fascinating in todays context, the 'build up' to modernism in particular. I do not find these particular writers rendered unuseful by time or being insufficiently sophisticated or vital. Or even that 'meaning' in some kind of social sense is their primary concern. I agree with both you and Owen in recognising this nostalgia for modernism. It is difficult to escape. I'd add that in some cases it looks more like a yearning for a political-cooked-aesthetic, but a yearning filtered through the slightly politically paralyzed sensibilities of cold wars kids (okay that's a bit too comedy generation war, but maybe you can understand!). The difficulty is even beginning to imagine in this context what new 'progressive' images could be. Esp. if terms like Utopia are understood generally as they are now, and 'progressive' remains the somewhat adolescent term it is today. The cultural cannibalism I refer to is not only about modernism, but about other cultures too, and it seems to be something to do with wondering where we find ourselves and starting again from a more desirable point. A seemingly strange strategy, but it's happening everywhere as we know. I'll stop here!

4:14 pm  
Anonymous Rob said...

That particular poster doesn't seem modernist to me at all, by the way. It's almost entirely classical, with those strong humanist capitals centred on the page.

7:20 pm  
Blogger owen hatherley said...

I think it should be clear that I am all for learning from/taking inspiration from the 1930s-60s - in fact, most of the Chelsea lecture this was taken from, and much of what I've ever written on the net and elsewhere argues as such. What I think is going on in Austerity Nostalgia is in a way a sort of idiot version of the same impulse that goes into much 'hauntological' music and design - benign bureaucracy etc is weird and fascinating in Ghost Box and rather tedious in the manifestations listed in this post.

If you compare this poster, and the actually produced posters which used the same crown/Gill Sans format, with any world war one poster, there's a huge difference - and that seems to me a consequence of a certain Modernish, compromised stylism which you find in Eric Gill or Edward Johnston - it's not Modernism in the sense of El Lissitzky or Herbert Bayer but it is clearly informed by a modernism.

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Blogger Liz said...

Hello Owen! Appended after the turkish/russian spam immediately above (you should clean your comments from time to time!) it looks like you have a new admirer; or at least follower: about a year after the fact; BUT I've just been referred here by lenin's tomb: so you have richard to thank!

Well I've never been to art college; nor have I had the effing kind of education that would have enabled me to seriously study history of art/design: though I do fondly remember studying van gogh in third year secondary comp (in the last year I was able to take Art as a subject: due to wretched early over-specialisation in British education system); and also briefly covering bauhaus for my Photography 'O' level. Only reason Moholy-Nagy has name recognition with me! But like they all say: I know what I like..!

And I love (over?) analysis of a bit of pop culture. Firstly: I don't think that the "cannibalistion" and re-use (maybe you could call it "womble-isation"?) of previous, 20th c. art is anything necessarily sinister;

11:35 am  
Blogger Liz said...

if you think about it it was bound to happen more and more, especially in the age of the internet - democratization of images as well as of information? All kinds of images from all periods of design get recycled, these days ever more as mouse mats, mugs and t-shirts - didn't the Japanese make this big in the 1980s by putting the Mona Lisa on everything? Yeah I sometimes wish that artists would think of something new; especially for (live-action) Hollywood movies (most of the innovation nowadays including in scripts takes place in CGI animated features!); and in the sort of architecture used in town arcades and shopping centres (most of which to me looks tired as soon as it is built: try Truro town centre for example!)

Itdoesn't seem so0sinister when used by0peopleon cafepress; or by PWANP. (Bet you wish you'd thought of it!) But it is a bit more disconcerting when it is employed by some big ad agency on behalf of a govt department. Those bus shelter posters look totally Big Brother.

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Blogger Liz said...

Well: I'll leave you with the thought (sorry this is on a mobile phone!), actually it was the first that came to me when I read your lecture; what do you think of the re-emergence of modernist (brutalist) visual tropes in recent Hollywood offerings? I am thinking particularly of Nolan's movies; specifically "The Dark Knight" which I recognised straight off as a visual brutalist-fest. (Not so much in terms of character violence; Nolan obscures everything!) I wondered how many of its drooling American fans recognised the visual/architectural style? Even those who thought themselves all sophisticated and "post-modernist"? How many exactly, recognise elements of STYLE and DESIGN when they see it? (as I do, though I could never afford the education to do it properly; nor have I ever had much money to collect knick-knacks.)

I mean, there was such a lot of magazine HOO-HAH (I remember it well!) about the FIRST Tim Burton "Batman" movie being all "Gothic" and its design being "Thirties" (actually Bats didn't have

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