Friday, July 03, 2009

Brutalism, friend of the Pedestrian

Near the end of his criminally out-of-print 1966 study The New Brutalism, Reyner Banham, clearly disappointed that the architectural non-aesthetic he had praised so much had developed not into the architecture autre he hoped for but transmogrified into sophisticated masterpieces of proper architecture like the Leicester Engineering and Economist Buildings, listed the things which dated Brutalism, which meant that even then it seemed passe compared with the Fun Palaces and Walking Cities. Brutalism, he notes, is an architecture that abhors the motor car. 'The ethic of the Brutalist connection in architecture, like every reformist trend in backward looking. It may make tremendous bold attempts to keep the automobile under control, but in the last resort it is to recreate a pedestrian city, as in the central plaza of Siedlung Halen, the street-decks of Park Hill.' Making such a hard and fast distinction between what is backward and what is progressive is often rather foolhardy, as history has a knack of being surprising. While for Banham the autopia of LA was Progressive, we can't be so sure. Signified in the UK by the point in the '70s related in Joe Moran's On Roads when, to the horror of the motoring lobby, the InterCity trains surpassed the motorways in speed, the car is no longer 'progressive'. In any sensible society it would be all but obsolete, a privatised mode of motion which not only carries rates of death in its wake that would never be accepted on any other kind of transport, but which carries in its train a landscape of endless sheds, retail parks and malls which, for all its cold fascination, is not one which even its defenders can be bothered to make a serious case for.

Brutalism's most retrograde element, its attempt to 'recreate' a city for the pedestrian, must now strike us as its most progressive aspect - especially as it is precisely in these pedestrian spaces that Brutalism created a genuinely new space, a new way of moving around the city. Rather than the idealised main street bafflingly turned into a model for all to follow (see this atrocity for a case in point), the Brutalist city of skywalks, under and overpasses and lakeside cafes makes the mundane act of getting from A to B exciting. This is something brought up in In Praise of Beech Street, a post on the Barbican's semi-secret underpass at Will Wiles' fine new blog Spillway. That was in response to a typically irritating post at Oobject, a sort of regular digest of high-in-pics low-in-thought design capitalist realism (eww housing projects! eww statism!), which took issue with New York's newly reopened Highline, because, um, it's not a proper street. This idiot version of Jane Jacobs is depressingly prevalent in urban design circles. Surely at least one reason for the enduring crapness of all the bland Plazas of the abortive 'urban renaissance', with their branches of Costa and optimistic seating spilling out onto the pavement was their spatial conservatism - everything always boringly tied to the ground, presumably with the knowledge that if we get light on our feet then we might not open our purses.

Critics and consumers alike seem to will any attempt to elevate everyday life to failure, anything that lifts us off away from the proximity of a coffee concession being some sort of mockery of the neoliberal city. Whether its the demolished walkways of innumerable council estates (usually for 'security' reasons, though it's moot whether they lead to endemic crime at the Barbican) to the imminent demise of Sheffield's multi-level tat extravaganza Castle Market (wonderfully, Sheffield City Council once planned to throw walkways over the whole Sheaf Valley), the attempt to create a pedestrian city that doesn't stay at a base level has become unpopular just at the point where it would seem most relevant, where it would make a (holds breath) sustainable urbanism something invigoratingly modern rather than tweedily conservative. It has been relatively intriguing, in the arid world of oligarchitecture, to see the reaction to Steven Holl's Beijing Linked Hybrid - not because it looks like it'll be a formally interesting building in itself, but because here the walkway has come back, and this seems to many critics to be an unforgivable urban faux pas. A perusal of the Skybridge-Skywalk-Skyway group on Flickr is a fine reminder that walkways, skyways, the excitement of multiple levels and a Metropolis worthy of the term are wholly part of the future we were promised and denied. Rather than sharing our streets with cars, we should be building car free streets in the air, from which we can rain down eggs and rotten vegetables on said cars.


Anonymous FintonStack said...

In all fairness, the secret service building are, with the exception of the Azerbajian and Czech examples, uniformly awful, though each, intriguingly, for a different reason. That aside, that site has to rank as one of the most consistantly dreadful, dogmatic sources of architectural commentary I've ever come across. What the deal with it?

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Anonymous FFS said...

And just to add, Wohnpark is regularly cited as one of the most popular, successful and luxuriously-appointed pieces of social housing in the world (sometimes in a 'what incentive is there for people to work hard if they give them something as good as that for next-to-nothing' context). Still, the buildings look a bit uniform and there isn't much in the way of external decoration, so best send in the fucking bulldozers, eh?

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Blogger avvakum said...

"A Critic Writes: Selected Essays by Reyner Banham" is available for free download at, as are a few other books with texts by or about him.

And the 1972 BBC film "Reyner Banham Loves Los Angeles" can be viewed here:

I'm all for raining down rocks and other missiles on passing cars, but the skyway experience is, unfortunately, not so universally liberating. In my semi-hometown of Minneapolis, for example, absolutely all the innumerable skyways in the downtown are enclosed to shield office workers and shoppers from the icy cold. Those incomparable poets of the Reagan-era Twin Cities, the Replacements, even wrote a song about the desperate longing this generates amongst lovelorn young people:

I wish you a speedy recovery, Comrade Owen!

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Blogger Oliver said...

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Blogger roger said...

I'm surprised you leave out the air in this consideration of walkways. I would imagine that in Beijing, as in Tokyo or other cities that still have room for manufacturing, the trouble with walking is breathing. Chronic respiratory diseases are very much an urban phenomenon - which is perhaps what happens when the atmosphere becomes a happy way of getting rid of negative externalities for various corporations. The negative externalities are then paid for out of pocket by those whose lungs and bronchi help clean the atmosphere - and to think, for this heroic task, they get no compensation at all. The oligarchitects (brilliant word!) pay no attention to this, of course.

Speaking of health - I hope recuperation is going well with you!

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Mr. Hatherley,

I have been a follower of this blog for a few months now and I always enjoy what you have to say. I also enjoyed your book very much and hope you publish more in the future. This being said, I do have some criticisms in regards to the central thesis of your writing. I posted these criticism here on my blog and would be very grateful if you were to respond:

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Anonymous FintonStack said...

Oh, and if you fancy a laugh, James Howard Kunstler's predictably, hysterically wrong-headed take on the High Line and the magnificant Standard Hotel is at

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Blogger owen hatherley said...

Ean, in response to your points. First of all, I was doing a fair amount of stick-bending. In the UK especially there is an ingrained hostility to public housing (something you can see in the reaction to the horrendous Sceaux Gardens fire in Camberwell, where it has bizarrely been suggested this now makes all high-rises unsafe - better evacuate all of Singapore or Hong Kong, then). Some of what was built between the 20s and the 70s by municipalities was awful, badly built and appallingly planned; the majority simply mediocre but no better or worse than most private housing from the same period; and a significant minority - Lubetkin, Park Hill, Keeling House, Gleadless, some of the new towns - was state-of-the-art, extraordinary architecture that was far better than what was being built privately (with the significant but ever-interesting exceptions of the Barbican and Span). I concentrated on the latter because I had a case to make, but I'm very much aware that the case does not apply in many social housing estates - and in terms of the feudalism and surveillance aspect, there's no doubt the neoliberal state has criminalised estates - in fact I mention that in the book...

Brutalism. I used the term there in reference to Reyner Banham's book, the New Brutalism - Ethic or Aesthetic, defining a socially progressive architectural 'ethic' based on hard, extreme designs, derived from the Smithsons or Stirling rather than Louis Kahn or Paul Rudolph; Brutalism did of course become an 'aesthetic' like any other, of course, and there's no reason why a trace of socialism should be carried by its use in American universities or for the FBI, any more than the art Soviets of the Weimar Republic leave their trace on the Seagram Building. Both would be a very interesting argument, but they aren't mine.

Conflating social democracy and communism. Well, as a Marxist who has a perverse attraction to the aesthetics of social democracy that's my fault - the conflation is unintentional, though I certainly see how they bleed through. Of course now even Butskellism seems revolutionary, so far have we travelled to what was once the headbanging neoclassical (in economics, if not always in architecture) right.

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Blogger owen hatherley said...

FFS - I've just scrolled through eight months of those 'eyesores' before I could find one that wasn't extremely aesthetically pleasing to my eyes...

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Anonymous FFS said...

Note he also wrote the afterword to Leon Kreir's "Architecture of Community". What I really hate is that I actually agree with these fuckers on a lot of things, like mixed-use development, pedestrian and cycle friendly infrastructure (I note even public transport seems to be too decadent for Krier) and subjugation of the private car. But their non-stop aesthetic dogmatism; bigoted technophobia (I'd say luddism but I don't want to equate the fuckers with couragious weavers desperately trying to defend their livelyhoods); joyless, life-hating cultural aeceticism; open distain for humanity and desire to obliterate every technological advance of the last 70 years that's resulted in massive improvements in living standards for hundreds of millions of ordinary people makes me want to join the Manifesto Club, move to Houston and engage in a non-stop tyre-burning orgy punctuated only by trips to Walmart in my monster truck.

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Blogger owen hatherley said...

Yes! to all the above.

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Blogger Will said...

I'm "reading" ("looking at") Leon Krier's collection of drawings, Drawing for Architecture, at the moment. Foreword by ... James Howard Kunstler. And I've been having exactly the same thoughts as FFS - there's a hell of a lot of sense in it, but shackled to a mobile home full of crazy.

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I just ran across this

on Kunstler's Eyesore of the Month. He may have more in common with Adolph Loos than he'd care to admit.

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I've been to Bruges a few times and I don't remember that. Will be sure to look out for it to offend family members if I go there again.

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